Fuels And Combustion Sp Sharma.pdf
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Even though the optimal design of the aircraft is the most important factor for the aircraft’s performance, there are many other operations related with the aircraft. Among the factors affecting the aircraft operations are: aircraft type, air traffic (volume, density, altitude, climatic conditions), take-off, en-route, landing, weight or center of gravity, and the instrument. The most important operation, and the most important impact to the total fuel consumption is the take-off and the landing. The take-off and the landing are the major source of fuel burn especially for the very low take-off weight categories .
The take-off is a very important operation for the ground handling, but it is also one of the major contributors to the aircraft fuel consumption. One of the two major requirements for safe take-off is sufficient take-off runway length [39, 41, 73]. The take-off airport distance typically varies from 5000 m to 80,000 m depending on the aircraft type and may depend on the weather conditions (clearance for take-off, turbulence, wind shear). The time to take-off and landing increases in the order of the least to the most efficient aircraft. There are more factors to consider in the take-off process such as take-off efficiency, which is the distance travelled in the distance from take-off to the terminal velocity, the angle of attack, which is the angle at which the aircraft maintains in ground approach phase, the take-off power, and the angle of attack. For the landing, the factors are: landing distance, the touchdown speed, the landing rollout and the landing gear weight. These factors all affect the landing phase, but the landing rollout and the landing gear weight are the most important factors. The landing roll out distance is the distance travelled in the distance from the end of the runway to the end of the taxiway, and for the landing gear weight includes the landing gear weight, the nose wheel weight and the tail wheel weight. When the aircraft is performing the take-off or the landing, the aircraft operates with power, which is the power injected into the aircraft from the engine and is typically connected with two parameters: the thrust and the torque. For the take-off and the landing, the thrust increases to a maximum value and then decreases, and the torque is constant and based on the friction and the thrust.
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